Author : Prof. Amrit Šorli
Jets from the black holes in the centers of some galaxies are well documented by astronomical observations . The mechanism that forms these jests is not well-understood yet. We extended the mass-energy equivalence principle to the universal space where a given physical object diminishes the energy density of space in its center exactly for the amount of its energy . In today’s physics is understood that universal space is a type of energy often named “superfluid quantum space” .
Extension of mass-energy equivalence on universal space shows that in the center of the black holes energy density of universal space is so low that atoms become unstable. They fall apart into elementary particles that are thrown out in interstellar space in the form of huge jets [4,5]. Prof. Roger Penrose’s singularities in the center of black holes  gain a physical interpretation in our model. In the centre of black holes “old matter” is transformed back into “fresh energy” in the form of huge jets. Our model suggests that the universe is a system in a permanent dynamic equilibrium, Big Bang seems to belong to the history of science .
Big Bang cosmology was seriously challenged back in 2011 by Prof. Paul Steinhardt , and in 2017 by Prof Anna Ijjas, Prof. Paul Steinhardt, and Prof Avi Loeb . The main unanswered question of the Big Bang model is: “From where did all this energy come in the first moment of the universe? Stephen Hawking’s answer was that in the first moment of the Big Bang energy of matter and the energy of space (gravitational energy) are multiplying. The energy of matter is positive, gravitational energy is negative, and their sum is always zero, so they can multiply . Mathematically Hawking is right: 1 + (-1) = 0, but this mathematical equation cannot be implied in the problem of how energy has appeared in the Big Bang model. Besides this, it has no support in experimental physics, energy cannot be created and cannot be destroyed, it can only be transformed into another type of energy.
In this sense, the model of black holes as rejuvenating systems of the universe is superior, because it respects the first law of thermodynamics. Prof. Penrose is proposing that Big Bangs are cyclic and the universe is expanding into infinity. At a certain moment, a new Big Bang happens [11,12]. The so-called “Cyclic Conformal Cosmology” is not answering the question of how matter that is expanding toward infinity is coming back into the central point of a new explosion. In the cosmological model, we proposed the circulation of energy in the universe is explained by the discovery of huge jets out of the centers of galaxies that are well documented . We are back to the model of the stationary universe that did not start, it is eternal. Such a model was first proposed by English astronomer Thomas Digges (1546-1595). It seems that the idea of the universe’s creation and some begging proposed by Belgian cosmologist Georges Lemaître back in 1931 was misleading the entire generation of cosmologists.
Strong evidence against Big Bang cosmology is NASA’s measurement back in 2014 that universal space has a Euclidean shape. We do not have any possibility in the frame of Euclidean geometry that the distance between two galaxies in Euclidean space would be changed because we cannot expand or shrink Euclidean space. The Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLWR) metric is not valid for Euclidean space . This mathematical fact is an additional theoretical problem of the Big Bang model.
Further on, cosmological redshift does not prove expansion of the universal space, it can be explained by the Mossbauer effect that was experimentally observed, namely, photons when moving in the opposite direction of gravity have a loss of frequency . Hypothetical expansion of the universal space was never observed experimentally, it is an unproven hypothesis. Mossbauer effect was observed on the Earth and is a valuable explanation of cosmological redshift.
- Roger Blandford, David Meier, Anthony Readhead, Relativistic Jets from Active Galactic Nuclei, Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 2019 57:1, 467-509 https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-astro-081817-051948
- Šorli, A.S. & Čelan Š., Time-Invariant Superfluid Quantum Space as the Unified Field Theory, RAPS, Vol. 4, No. 3 (2020) 2050007, https://doi.org/10.1142/S2424942420500073
- Sbitnev I. S., Hydrodynamics of Superfluid Quantum Space: de Broglie interpretation of the quantum mechanics, https://arxiv.org/pdf/1707.08508.pdf (2017)
- Amrit S. Sorli, Stefan Celan, Schwarzschild energy density of superfluid quantum space and mechanism of AGNs’ jets, Advanced Studies in Theoretical Physics, Vol. 15, 2021, no. 1, 9-17, https://doi.org/10.12988/astp.2021.91506
- Amrit S. Sorli, Stefan Celan, Niko Gorjup, Physical Aspects of Penrose’s Black Hole Singularities, Advanced Studies in Theoretical Physics Vol. 16, 2022, no. 4, 191 – 200 https://doi.org/10.12988/astp.2022.91893
- Penrose, R., Gravitational Collapse and Space-Time Singularities, Phys. Rev. Lett., 14 (1965), 57. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.14.57
- Šorli, S., Čelan Š., Jafari S., Fiscaletti D., Bahroz Brzo A. Eternal universe in dynamic equilibrium, Physics Essays 35, 1 (2022) http://dx.doi.org/10.4006/0836-1398-35.1.15
- Steinhardt, P. J. 2011. The Inflation Debate. Scientific American. 304 (4): 36-43.
- Ijjas, A., P. J. Steinhardt, and A. Loeb. Cosmic Inflation Theory Faces Challenges. Scientific American. Posted on scientificamerican.com February 1, 2017, accessed on May 15, 2017.
- S. Hawking, A Brief History of Time, Bantam Books, New York, 2017
- Roger Penrose (2006). “Before the Big Bang: An Outrageous New Perspective and its Implications for Particle Physics” (PDF). Proceedings of the EPAC 2006, Edinburgh, Scotland: 2759–2762.
- Gurzadyan, V.G., Penrose, R. On CCC-predicted concentric low-variance circles in the CMB sky. Eur. Phys. J. Plus 128, 22 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1140/epjp/i2013-13022-4